Cross-Machine Direction

On a papermaking machine, the direction perpendicular to the direction in which the paper web travels as it is forming. Cross-machine direction tests are frequently made during paper production to ensure that the papermaking furnish is being delivered across the forming wire with uniform thickness, consistency, moisture content, etc. Variations in CD profiles affect the quality, printability and runnability of the paper that will ultimately form. The cross-machine direction is also called the cross-grain direction.

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