Term for the undiluted substances comprising an offset press's fountain solution. Fountain concentrate commonly consists of alcohol or an alcohol substitute, a wetting agent, a gum, a fungicide, and perhaps a drying stimulator and/or an antifoaming agent, with variations on the actual composition in order to be compatible with the chemistry of the ink and/or substrate used. Fountain concentrate is often premixed by the supplier. Adding a recommended quantity of water produces the fountain solution itself. Typical dosages are quite low, usually between 2 and 3% fountain concentrate mixed into the water, although IPA-free dampening might require 4 or 5% dosage. (See Fountain Solution and Dampening System.) Fountain concentrate is also called fountain etch and etch.