The extent to which a paper is able to restore its original dimensions and surface contours after a compressing force has been removed, as in printing. The degree of a paper's resiliency, along with its compressibility, and hardness or softness define its printing cushion. Such factors in the papermaking process as degree of fiber refining, calendering, and supercalendering affect a paper's resiliency, as do density and moisture content. Resiliency is more of an issue in letterpress and gravure printing and less of one in flexography and offset lithography. Other considerations such as hardness and an ability to withstand handling and folding may obviate the desire for a paper with high resiliency. (See Compressibility, and Hardness and Softness.)

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