A material, either solid or semi-solid, used as a printing ink binder in ink vehicles to assist the ink pigment in adhering to the substrate. Resins also determine the ink qualities of gloss, hardness, and adhesion. Resins are either derived from natural sources (such as rosin, derived from the distillation of turpentine obtained from the sap of pine trees) and lac (secreted by the lac insect, used in shellac), or are synthesized by the polymerization of other materials. Commonly-used resins include alkyds, asphaltum, coumarone-indene resin, fumaric resin, gum, maleic resin, Nylon, phenolic resin, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride acetate, and shellac. Resins are also used in varnishes, lacquers, and other materials. (See Vehicle.)

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